This monastery, characteristic of its two twin spires rising in front of its Gothic structure was built 1347 upon the request of Charles IV, who promoted it as a future major church in Prague’s New Town.
The emperor requested a Slavonic Benedictine order in Prague as he aimed to strengthen ties among the Slavs while also contributing to eliminating the schism between the Western and Eastern churches. This was the only Slavonic monastery in Charles’s Christian Western Empire and it soon became a center of learning and art.
Students of Church Slavonic included such figures as Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague and a number of illuminated literary treasures were created here, including the Reims Gospel Book. However, the monastery suffered a tumultuous history as during the WWII the Gestapo captured the monastery and sent the monks to the Dachau concentration camp.
After the war the monastery was shut down again by Communists and it only after years of violence it was restored in 1990 after the fall of Communism. The Gothic Church of Our Lady was renovated and reopened in 2003, after being badly damaged in 1945. The twin spires were added in the 1960s as part of the entirely modern design called courage by architect F.M. Černý.
During the reconstruction fragments of murals and inscriptions were uncovered in chapter hall. There is an inscription in Croatian Glagolitic which is the first and the only Glagolitic epigraph in the Czech Republic and any other Western Slavic countries.